14.3 Life in Medina
Medina, teeming with life, had four groups of people living in it. There were those people from the tribes of the Aws and the Khazraj who had entered into Islam. These were called the “Ansar” or Supporters, because they were people who supported the Messenger when other tribes had rejected him. Then there were the Muslims who had emigrated from Mecca who were known as the 'Muhajirun' or Emigrants, because they had left their homes and city and emigrated to Medina to support Allah and His Messenger. There were also people from AI-Aws and the Al-Khazraj who had not entered into Islam. These were becoming fewer in number and of less consequence as they held no sway over the Muslims who had been strengthened by the arrival of the Meccan Muslims. However a group of them, who professed to believe in Allah and His Messenger, plotted secretly against the Muslims and were dangerous in an insidious and underhanded way. These were headed by a man called , Abdullah ibn Ubayy , who had hoped to be made king before the coming of the Messenger to Medina. He resented the Messenger's influence over most of the inhabitants of Medina and he resented the presence of so many Emigrants from Mecca, but he stayed his tongue and bided his time. This group of people we shall call “the Hypocrites”, as the believers called them later. Apart from these groups there were also three powerful Jewish tribes. How could harmony be created among the four groups? The answer could only be found in the teachings of Islam.
The Messenger made a treaty giving the Jews freedom to practice their religion and binding all the parties together in a pact of mutual protection.